Last Blog Post we discussed GST/HST audits and how to avoid them! But what are some things you can do if you find yourself in a GST/HST Audit or Review situation?
Filing and Paying your GST/HST late can draw the attention of CRA like the Eye of Sauron!
Last Blog Post we discussed how to claim HST credits on mixed use expenses. This post we'll discuss GST/HST audits and how to avoid them!
Last Blog Post we discussed why a business would want to register for GST/HST before they have to. This month we discuss what businesses can claim GST/HST credits on. (And next Blog Post we'll discuss what a business can't claim GST/HST credits on!)
Today, we'll look at three different categories of what businesses can claim GST/HST credits back on; 100% business use purchases, purchases with a personal use portion, and business use of home expenses;
Last month we discussed the CRA Business Number, and three of it's most common 'program accounts'. One of those program accounts was the GST/HST account (the CRA Business Number with "RT0001" at the end). But does a business NEED to register for a GST/HST Account? Does a business WANT to register for a GST/HST Account?
Is your business registered? TRICK QUESTION! Your response should be "it depends; registered with who?"
Many Provinces require a business to register with the province in order to operate as a business in that province. For example, in Ontario, if you are going to run the business under a business name other than your own personal name, you will need to register your business name with the Province of Ontario and get a business license to operate under that name in Ontario. It’s pretty quick'n easy. It includes a name search to make sure no one else is operating under that name in Ontario, and only costs $60. If you do this, they will give you a Business License to operate under that name, and Business Identification Number. This is NOT the same thing as a Business Number, which is a federal thing.
You do not have to register your business with the Federal Government until there is a reason to do so. There are various federal agencies, but two come to mind for business registration: Service Canada & Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). You do not have to register with Service Canada unless you hire employees (at which point, you will need to be able to issue ROEs via Service Canada’s ROE Web, and you will need to be registered with CRA before you create an account with Service Canada). You do not have to register with the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) and get a Federal Business Number unless any one of these things occur:
When any one of these things occur, you create a Business Account with CRA and you are issued a Business Number. It is nine digits long, and I sometimes refer to it as the SIN number of the business. That is because it is basically a way for the CRA to track how much you owe them! Let's pretend the CRA Business Number you are issued is 1234 56789...
The real business hack is understanding how to pay to the correct business program account, and also to the correct period! Paying to the incorrect period causes wasted time and money! More than you realize! Yes, it can be fixed, but to sort it out can take more time than you may think. Paying on time and to the correct program and period will help you to not give CRA more money than you have to!
Stay Tuned for next month's blog post; When does a business HAVE to register for GST/HST, and why would a business WANT to register for GST/HST before they have to!?!
If you have any specific questions you want addressed in that post, feel free to email me!
I never say never, but, today I will! NEVER use one password on more than one site! All it takes is for one of those sites to be breached, and you're vulnerable! Out there on the dark web, there are bots that can take a list of breached email addresses and passwords from weak website, and plug the combination into a myriad of other websites that are commonly used, such as Paypal, Amazon, Uber, etc. And if your actual gmail or yahoo is a match, now they even can jump past the email verification and reset your passwords in on other sites. Re-using passwords in today's day and age leaves you dangerously exposed, more than you may realize!
What sites can be breached? It can happen to the best of them, as it happened to CRA in 2020!
Remember when you were young and used the same password for your Myspace, Geocities, and ICQ? And that crappy coupon website? And every other online account you’ve ever created? If this sounds familiar, maybe you should check out “Have I Been Pwned” to see what sites we know have been hacked, and if your email address happens to be on any of them.
The word "pwned" has origins in video game culture and is a leetspeak derivation of the word "owned", due to the proximity of the "o" and "p" keys. It's typically used to imply that someone has been controlled or compromised, for example "I was pwned in the Adobe data breach". www.haveibeenpwned.com is a website that was created by Troy Hunt as a free source for anyone to quickly assess if they may have been put at risk due to an online account of theirs having been compromised or "pwned" in a data breach. If your email was part of a breach in the last 20 years, you can find out if it's on any of the lists that are out there by searching for your email address on this helpful website!
Password Managers Are No Longer An Option
To stay safe in this current time, that is, to have unique passwords for every online login, Password Managers are no longer just an option, they are a necessity. Check out PC Mag's top picks for Password Managers in 2022!
In this new year, do something good for yourself: Protect yourself and your passwords :) And don't get pwned...
One of the biggest sources of headaches and wasted time is mis-management of paperwork, and paperwork clutter. Without a simple filing system and process in place, you create future work & double work. Follow these tips to successfully wrangle your paperwork flow!
In the fall of 2020, the sales tax rules were proposed to be changed for e-commerce (electronic commerce) supplies starting July 1st 2021. As Bill C-30 is being finalized, the bigger e-commerce providers see the writing on the wall and are updating their fees to also charge GST/HST. Now, when a foreign business sell to consumers in Canada, they may need to charge GST/HST!
Today, I just received an email from Spotify letting me know that starting July 1st, they will be charging me GST/HST on their services. You may have heard Netflix too is adding GST/HST starting July 1st. Shopify already had started charging GST/HST on their services a long time ago.
When we entered our expenses for digital services charged by a non-Canadian business in the past, if the fees were in USD, or if they were charged from a US company, it was safe to assume there was no GST/HST being charged. Even before this new bill, that was beginning to be less and less the case!
What electronic subscriptions related to business do you have that may now have GST/HST credits for you that didn't before July 1st? Even if you are being charged in US funds, don't assume there is or is not GST/HST! Go to your settings and check out the actual invoice, and see if there is GST/HST being charged that you can claim back from CRA on your next HST return!
Here's CRA's FAQ on the new proposed changes
Further reading on this can be found on BDO and CPA Canada
Habits and routines are KEY in maintaining your data management. Do you constantly forget to brush your teeth in the morning? Probably not, because it is part of your morning routine. Habits can be a bad thing, but, they can also be good when implemented consciously! Intentionally create routines and processes that your future self with thank you later for. Let’s review some suggestions for routines to help you create your processes:
I cannot understate how much time and money these intentional and simple things can save! It only takes 10 seconds to put the receipt into a folder in your car instead of tossing it in the back seat and having to search and gather all your paperwork later on. So make this a habit. You may find that entering your expenses every week only takes about 30 minutes for your business once you begin to get quicker at it. If you leave it until it is a large pile, sorting through all the papers will end up taking exponentially longer. Reconciling the bank every month, and clearing the bank feed every week, helps if there is a transaction that is missing a receipt. You will have a much better chance of remembering what that transaction was and was for. Set up and start these processes, routines, habits, and rituals now, and your business will be humming along later instead of careening off the rails.
Make these routines your own, but make them. I call it “Setting Up Your Success Routine”. Studies have shown that it takes about three weeks to create a new habit. Also, keep in mind that changing Systems is Easier Than Changing Behaviors. If your system fails, don’t try and change your behavior; try to change your system.
Pill boxes marked with the days of the week is a good example of changing a system instead of a behavior. We often have the best intentions, but we often forget until something is worked into our routine. Even routines are systems that may need changing. If you forget to take your medication each day, simply trying to change only your behavior is often a failing challenge. Change the system, change the routine. Maybe you could put your medication bottle next to your coffee maker and take your pill every time you make your morning coffee. You may find that then the question becomes, ‘did I take the medication’? Tweak the routine, buy a pill box marked with the days of the week, and refill it for Sunday to Saturday the moment you take your Saturday pill.
Use this perspective as you develop your business routines. If they are not working, change them. It is easier to change a routine or process than to try and change just the behavior. If Friday nights do not work for you, try a time that does, such as Monday mornings.
Work with yourself. There’s the phrase “Don't change your habits, change your habitat.” For example, do you constantly leave your socks on the floor in the living room? Put a hamper in the living room. Do you constantly leave paperwork on that side desk in the hallways? Put a folder there specifically for the business documents. Willpower is hard to control. We have more control over our environment, so set up the environment such that these processes are easier to put into practice. Our brain has less bandwidth than we think, and we will forget things that we were confident that we would remember. But we rarely forget to brush our teeth! Similarly, set up habits and routines that need no brain bandwidth to maintain, and you will set yourself, and your business, up for success.
I’m often asked, what expenses can a business claim? There are the obvious ones of course. A list of the standard categories to add up can be found at here, but what are the not so obvious transactions that a business needs to track? What expenses can a business claim?
A core message you hear from me is: We are tracking our totals mainly for our own benefit, to make sure we are achieving the profit and growth we are aiming for. To this end, we want to make sure to capture all transactions that that would not have happened if we were not running the business. We want to get as close to reality as possible. In order to do so, we must keep our personal purchases separate from those that are business related.
Special Hack for the Grey Situations: "Would I Reimburse An Employee For That?"
A really good guide for know what is business and what is personal is to think, ‘’Would I reimburse my employee for that?”. For example, if you asked them to pick up donuts for the entire office because of an office meeting, would you expect them to pay for all the donuts? No, you would have no issues with giving them the money to cover it. If they went out at lunch to buy themselves a fast food lunch, and brought back the receipt, would you cover that? Probably not, especially if they did that every day. If you were at a job site that was far enough away from home that you and your crew needed to stay overnight in a hotel, would you cover that for them? Yes. Also, because they could not go home to pack a lunch the next day, you would probably cover their travel meal. Often, construction companies offer compensation for safety rated steel toed boots. In contrast, if one of your sales reps came into your office and said, “I need to have fresh breath for when I do my sales pitch to prospective clients, so I expect you to cover the cost of my toothpaste” you would likely think he was crazy!
Using the “would I reimburse an employee for this” guideline can be extremely helpful in deciding if it is an expense you believe is related to running the business or not. It also helps in considering if it is an expense that the CRA would allow if you are ever audited, because their goal is to find the number that is closest to reality too.
ProTip: If you are claiming a meal expense, write down on the receipt who you met and how it was related to business, so that the info is there if you are audited. And yes, you can include the Tip in the entry. (But know that even business meals expenses are only claimed at 50% for tax purposes). If you are travelling out of town, you can claim travel meal. But if you're in town, and you're not meeting a business related person, then it's not claimable, as per the guideline above, "would I reimburse an employee for this".
Mixed Use Expenses:
These guidelines also can help to understand mixed use expenses that you are allowed to claim. Mixed Use expenses are expenses that support the running of the business that also support the running of your non-business life, such as your car and your home office.
Let’s start with Vehicle Expenses
If you had a company truck that your employees picked up at the shop, and use to go to jobsites or clients, would you expect them to pay for any of the gas or maintenance? No, you would cover those truck expenses 100%. Similarly as a business owner, a company vehicle that is used 100% for business, you can claim 100% of all expenses. But when you start out, you generally have a personal vehicle that you use for both personal errands and business running around, that is used for less than 100% for business.
If your employee used their own vehicle to just drive into the office in the morning, and then back home at the end of the day, would you cover the cost of their gas and vehicle maintenance? No. Driving to and from the main place of work, such as a store or office, is not something you would reimburse for. CRA also does not consider this business use if you're just driving into your own office. If your employee drove around in their own vehicle to sales appointments, they would expect some sort of compensation. Would you cover every single gas receipt they put in their car for the entire year, and 100% of all their maintenance bills? No. How would you feel if they drove 10 minutes to a meeting, and 10 minutes back from a meeting, and filled up their gas tank from empty along the way? Would you reimburse for the full tank of gas? No. In Canada, we generally use “Vehicle allowance” or a “per km rate” to reimburse employees for use of their personal car. Though, for business owners, currently in Canada, it is a bit more complex.
For business owners, CRA would like to get a little closer to reality. That is, the per km rate does not account for higher maintenance costs for certain vehicles, or the variance of gas prices across the country. So, they become more detailed for business owners. (As mentioned above, getting as close to reality as possible).
For business owners, the way that the CRA allows vehicle expenses is by percentage. If you use your vehicle for business, you can claim the percentage of all your expenses that correlate with the percentage of time you use your vehicle for business. To do that, they expect you to keep a vehicle log so that the percentage can be calculated. They are trying to get as close to reality as possible. No more, no less. You can claim that percentage of ALL the vehicle expenses; maintenance, gas, plates, insurance, lease, Capital Cost Allowance (the vehicle losing value over time) or the interest on the loan. (Not the full loan payments. Paying down a loan is not an expense, it is decreasing how much you owe. It is the interest on the loan, that is an expense, and you can claim a percentage of that).
If you have a work vehicle that you ONLY use for business, then the percentage you are claiming is 100%. If you use your vehicle half the time for business, and the other half the time for personal, then you can only claim 50% of your vehicle expenses. If you use your vehicle for both personal and business, you are required to keep a vehicle log, and to note your odometer at the beginning of every year. (There are apps that can help!) If you use your vehicle for 90% or more for business use, then keep a vehicle log for 3 months with the odometer reading from the beginning and the end of the three months, and you can use that as a baseline to show CRA if you are ever reviewed or audited.
The next question is, how do you track all of the vehicles expenses, if you are only claiming a portion, especially if you do not know the percentage until the log is added up at the end of the year?
Many bookkeeping software applications have not yet accounted for this percentage issue, (often referred to as “allocations” or “Personal Use Allocations”). Some have, especially since the rules for the amount you can claim for GST/HST on these expenses follow the same rule. Most have not, even the bigger named bookkeeping software. Many of them work on the assumption that your vehicle is 100% business use.
You have options. To make your bookkeeping easier, if possible, you can try to focus on only one vehicle for business use and use another for personal errands. Otherwise, here are some suggestions:
If you are incorporated, it’s important to discuss how you will be handling your vehicle costs with your accountant at the beginning of the year. Also, before you purchase a vehicle, connect with your accountant to ask whether they think given your specific situation the vehicle should be purchased in your name or the corporation’s name.
Business Use of Home Expenses
Another scenario to consider. Kind of weird, but in keeping with the ‘would you reimburse your employee’ metaphor. If you wanted an office to run your business out of, and one of your employees said they had the perfect room for you at their place, would you expect to be able to work from their home office for free? Probably not. They would likely expect some sort of rent to be paid. Similarly, this is why CRA allows you to include your own home office as an expense. Then how do they calculate this amount?
It is a percentage game again.
There are two categories to consider here. The cost of maintaining your home that you would have to pay anyway if you had a business or not, and those costs that are higher than usual because you are running a business, such as telephone and internet use, and maybe electricity if you have a workshop on your property.
For those costs you would have to pay anyway, first you calculate the percentage your office space takes up in your home. Then, you add up all the costs it takes to run your home; utilities, insurance, maintenance, property taxes, rent or mortgage interest (not the full mortgage payments, just the interest portion). These are not usually paid for out of the business bank account, because they are below 50% business use, and would really mess up your Income Statement totals. We usually total these up at the end of the year (and associated HST), and then add an adjustment in at the end of the year, mainly to decrease your taxable income. For my personal situation, I claim 12.5% of my Business Use of Home expenses (Also known as home office expenses).
The other category to consider are the home mixed expenses that are higher because you are running the business, such as telephone and internet use.
These can be claimed at a higher percentage, and you likely want to see them on your Income Statement, because you want to consider them when evaluating your profit. Consider adding the business portion only into your monthly entries into your bookkeeping, along with associated HST. Still pay the full bill out of your personal account, but mark the business portion of the expense you enter as “Paid by Owner” (or, paid by cash).
Mixed Expenses can be a pain. But, they do help reduce your taxable profit! And in the context of wanting to get as close to reality as possible, how CRA expects them to be claimed, and how you want to see them when evaluating your Income Statement, you can see how it is helpful to know what is expected and how you are going to handle them ahead of time! For example, right now, go outside and write down your odometer reading. Then grab a notebook to keep in the car, or download an app, to keep track of kilometers you drive for business!
In Summary: Start a vehicle log, today.
- You can claim a portion of all your vehicle expenses. The percentage you can claim is related to the percentage you drive your car in the year for business. The vehicle expenses you want to track are:
Notice that I wrote “Vehicle” in every expense there. For clarity, you need to name your Ledger accounts specifically with the word “Vehicle” in it. Do not put all insurance into one GL account. This will cause headaches at year end. Put your Vehicle Insurance into It’s own GL Account, and put your business insurance into it’s own GL Account.
- You can claim a portion of all the expenses it costs you to live in your home. This is a much lower percentage, so it usually is an adjustment added in at the end of the year. The Home Expenses you will need totals for are:
- If you are incorporated, connect with your accountant with how they feel is the best way to claim your mixed use expenses given your specific situation. And if you are incorporated, connect with your accountant before you purchase a vehicle to discuss if the vehicle should be in your name or the corporation’s name. There are tax implications for both!