Habits and routines are KEY in maintaining your data management. Do you constantly forget to brush your teeth in the morning? Probably not, because it is part of your morning routine. Habits can be a bad thing, but, they can also be good when implemented consciously! Intentionally create routines and processes that your future self with thank you later for. Let’s review some suggestions for routines to help you create your processes:
I cannot understate how much time and money these intentional and simple things can save! It only takes 10 seconds to put the receipt into a folder in your car instead of tossing it in the back seat and having to search and gather all your paperwork later on. So make this a habit. You may find that entering your expenses every week only takes about 30 minutes for your business once you begin to get quicker at it. If you leave it until it is a large pile, sorting through all the papers will end up taking exponentially longer. Reconciling the bank every month, and clearing the bank feed every week, helps if there is a transaction that is missing a receipt. You will have a much better chance of remembering what that transaction was and was for. Set up and start these processes, routines, habits, and rituals now, and your business will be humming along later instead of careening off the rails.
Make these routines your own, but make them. I call it “Setting Up Your Success Routine”. Studies have shown that it takes about three weeks to create a new habit. Also, keep in mind that changing Systems is Easier Than Changing Behaviors. If your system fails, don’t try and change your behavior; try to change your system.
Pill boxes marked with the days of the week is a good example of changing a system instead of a behavior. We often have the best intentions, but we often forget until something is worked into our routine. Even routines are systems that may need changing. If you forget to take your medication each day, simply trying to change only your behavior is often a failing challenge. Change the system, change the routine. Maybe you could put your medication bottle next to your coffee maker and take your pill every time you make your morning coffee. You may find that then the question becomes, ‘did I take the medication’? Tweak the routine, buy a pill box marked with the days of the week, and refill it for Sunday to Saturday the moment you take your Saturday pill.
Use this perspective as you develop your business routines. If they are not working, change them. It is easier to change a routine or process than to try and change just the behavior. If Friday nights do not work for you, try a time that does, such as Monday mornings.
Work with yourself. There’s the phrase “Don't change your habits, change your habitat.” For example, do you constantly leave your socks on the floor in the living room? Put a hamper in the living room. Do you constantly leave paperwork on that side desk in the hallways? Put a folder there specifically for the business documents. Willpower is hard to control. We have more control over our environment, so set up the environment such that these processes are easier to put into practice. Our brain has less bandwidth than we think, and we will forget things that we were confident that we would remember. But we rarely forget to brush our teeth! Similarly, set up habits and routines that need no brain bandwidth to maintain, and you will set yourself, and your business, up for success.
I’m often asked, what expenses can a business claim? There are the obvious ones of course. A list of the standard categories to add up can be found at here, but what are the not so obvious transactions that a business needs to track? What expenses can a business claim?
A core message you hear from me is: We are tracking our totals mainly for our own benefit, to make sure we are achieving the profit and growth we are aiming for. To this end, we want to make sure to capture all transactions that occurred that would not have happened if we were not running the business. We want to get as close to reality as possible. In order to do so, we must keep our personal purchases separate from those that are business related.
"Would I Reimburse An Employee For That?" A really good guide for know what is business and what is personal is to think, ‘’Would I reimburse my employee for that?”. For example, if you asked them to pick up donuts for the entire office because of an office meeting, would you expect them to pay for all the donuts? No, you would have no issues with giving them the money to cover it. If they went out at lunch to buy themselves a fast food lunch, and brought back the receipt, would you cover that? Probably not, especially if they did that every day. If you were at a job site that was far enough away from home that you and your crew needed to stay overnight in a hotel, would you cover that for them? Yes. Also, because they could not go home to pack a lunch the next day, you would probably cover their travel meal. Often, construction companies offer compensation for safety rated steel toed boots. In contrast, if one of your sales reps came into your office and said, “I need to have fresh breath for when I do my sales pitch to prospective clients, so I expect you to cover the cost of my toothpaste” you would likely think he was crazy!
Using the “would I reimburse an employee for this” guideline can be extremely helpful in deciding if it is an expense you believe is related to running the business or not. It also helps in considering if it is an expense that the CRA would allow if you are ever audited, because their goal is to find the number that is closest to reality too.
Mixed Use Expenses:These guidelines also can help to understand mixed use expenses that you are allowed to claim. Mixed Use expenses are expenses that support the running of the business that also support the running of your non-business life, such as your car and your home office.
Let’s start with Vehicle Expenses
If you had a company truck that your employees picked up at the shop, and use to go to jobsites or clients, would you expect them to pay for any of the gas or maintenance? No, you would cover those truck expenses 100%. Similarly as a business owner, a company vehicle that is used 100% for business, you can claim 100% of all expenses. When you start out, you generally have a personal vehicle that you use for both personal errands and business running around, that is used for less than 100% for business.
If your employee used their own vehicle to just drive into the office in the morning, and then back home at the end of the day, would you cover the cost of their gas and vehicle maintenance? No. Driving to and from the main place of work, such as a store or office, is not something you would reimburse for. If your employee drove around in their own vehicle to sales appointments, they would expect some sort of compensation. Would you cover every single gas receipt they put in their car for the entire year, and 100% of all their maintenance bills? No. How would you feel if they drove 10 minutes to a meeting, and 10 minutes back from a meeting, and filled up their gas tank from empty along the way? Would you reimburse for the full tank of gas? No. In Canada, we generally use “Vehicle allowance” or a “per km rate” to reimburse employees for use of their personal car. Though, for business owners, currently in Canada, it is a bit more complex.
For business owners, CRA would like to get a little closer to reality. That is, the per km rate does not account for higher maintenance costs for certain vehicles, or the variance of gas prices across the country. So, they become more detailed for business owners.
For business owners, the way that the CRA allows vehicle expenses is by percentage. If you use your vehicle for business, you can claim the percentage of all your expenses that correlate with the percentage of time you use your vehicle for business. To do that, they expect you to keep a vehicle log so that the percentage can be calculated. They are trying to get as close to reality as possible. No more, no less. You can claim that percentage of ALL the vehicle expenses; maintenance, gas, plates, insurance, lease, Capital Cost Allowance (the vehicle losing value over time) or the interest on the loan. (Not the loan payments. Loan payments are not an expense, they are decreasing how much you owe. It is the interest on the loan, that is an expense, and you can claim a percentage of that).
If you have a work vehicle that you ONLY use for business, then the percentage you are claiming is 100%. If you use your vehicle half the time for business, and the other half the time for personal, then you can only claim 50% of your vehicle expenses. If you use your vehicle for both personal and business, you are required to keep a vehicle log, and to note your odometer at the beginning of every year. (There are apps that can help!) If you use your vehicle for 90% or more for business use, then keep a vehicle log for 3 months with the odometer reading from the beginning and the end of the three months, and you can use that as a baseline to show CRA if you are ever reviewed or audited.
The next question is, how do you track all of the vehicles expenses, if you are only claiming a portion, especially if you do not know the percentage until the log is added up at the end of the year?
Many bookkeeping software applications have not yet accounted for this percentage issue, (often referred to as “allocations” or “Personal Use Allocations”). Some have, especially since the rules for the amount you can claim for GST/HST on these expenses follow the same rule. Most have not, even the bigger named bookkeeping software. Many of them work on the assumption that your vehicle is 100% business use.
You have options. To make your bookkeeping easier, if possible, you can try to focus on only one vehicle for business use and use another for personal errands. Otherwise, here are some suggestions:
If you use the vehicle for more than 90% business, you can treat it as if you use it 100% for business.
If you use the vehicle for 50% to 90% for business, you could enter all the expenses into the software, and keep in mind that the vehicle expense total on your profit and loss is higher than what you will end up claiming at the end of the year when looking at your Income Statement. Then you would subtract the personal portion with an adjustment at the end of the year.
If you use the vehicle for less than 50% business use, you can put the vehicle expenses into a special “Owners Vehicle Use” equity account on the balance sheet, and then ADD with an adjustment to the expenses at the end of the year.
Pro Tip – use only one payment method for that specific vehicle’s gas, and a different payment method for the rest of the family’s gas. This way, you can see the total gas for that specific car easily by knowing, “all gas purchased with xyz card is for Vehicle A”. Word smarter not harder!
If you are incorporated, it’s important to discuss how you will be handling your vehicle costs with your accountant at the beginning of the year. Also, before you purchase a vehicle, connect with your accountant to ask whether they think given your specific situation the vehicle should be purchased in your name or the corporation’s name.
Business Use of Home ExpensesAnother scenario to consider. Kind of weird, but in keeping with the ‘would you reimburse your employee’ metaphor. If you wanted an office to run your business out of, and one of your employees said they had the perfect room for you at their place, would you expect to be able to work from their home office for free? Probably not. They would likely expect some sort of rent to be paid. Similarly, this is why CRA allows you to include your own home office as an expense. Then how do they calculate this amount?
It is a percentage game again.
There are two categories to consider here. The cost of maintaining your home that you would have to pay anyway if you had a business or not, and those costs that are higher than usual because you are running a business, such as telephone and internet use, and maybe electricity if you have a workshop on your property.
For those costs you would have to pay anyway, first you calculate the percentage your office space takes up in your home. Then, you add up all the costs it takes to run your home; utilities, insurance, maintenance, property taxes, rent or mortgage interest (not the full mortgage payments, just the interest portion). These are not usually paid for out of the business bank account, because they are below 50% business use, and would really mess up your Income Statement totals. We usually total these up at the end of the year (and associated HST), and then add an adjustment in at the end of the year, mainly to decrease your taxable income. For my personal situation, I claim 12.5% of my Business Use of Home expenses (Also known as home office expenses).
The other category to consider are the home mixed expenses that are higher because you are running the business, such as telephone and internet use.
These can be claimed at a higher percentage, and you likely want to see them on your Income Statement, because you want to consider them when evaluating your profit. Consider adding the business portion only into your monthly entries into your bookkeeping, along with associated HST. Still pay the full bill out of your personal account, but mark the business portion of the expense you enter as “Paid by Owner” (or, paid by cash).
Mixed Expenses can be a pain. But, they do help reduce your taxable profit! And in the context of wanting to get as close to reality as possible, how CRA expects them to be claimed, and how you want to see them when evaluating your Income Statement, you can see how it is helpful to know what is expected and how you are going to handle them ahead of time! For example, right now, go outside and write down your odometer reading. Then grab a notebook to keep in the car, or download an app, to keep track of kilometers you drive for business!
In Summary:- Start a vehicle log, today.
- You can claim a portion of all your vehicle expenses. The percentage you can claim is related to the percentage you drive your car in the year for business. The vehicle expenses you want to track are:
Notice that I wrote “Vehicle” in every expense there. For clarity, you need to name your Ledger accounts specifically with the word “Vehicle” in it. Do not put all insurance into one GL account. This will cause headaches at year end. Put your Vehicle Insurance into It’s own GL Account, and put your business insurance into it’s own GL Account.
- You can claim a portion of all the expenses it costs you to live in your home. This is a much lower percentage, so it usually is an adjustment added in at the end of the year. The Home Expenses you will need totals for are:
- If you are incorporated, connect with your accountant with how they feel is the best way to claim your mixed use expenses given your specific situation. And if you are incorporated, connect with your accountant before you purchase a vehicle to discuss if the vehicle should be in your name or the corporation’s name. There are tax implications for both!
Amazon activity on credit cards, and emails confirming that *something* got shipped. Some purchases have GST/HST, some do not. As a bookkeeper when I ask my clients for what the Amazon charge was for, and they have to dig into their history to see if it was business or personal, it sucks valuable time out of both of our busy days!
Here enters the solution!!! Amazon Business Prime! You can add your office manager as a user, and they can prep an order, and you just click confirm! You can add your bookkeeper as a user that has view only privileges, and they no longer need you to dig into things for them! And no needing to remember to switch the payment method from your personal to business credit card! An exclusive business Amazon Prime account is a great HackStack tool!
If that isn't good enough news, if you already have a personal account, they'll drop the annual prime business fee from $120 to $35 a month! BUT WAIT, THERE'S MORE! If you have Dext set up, you can connect your Amazon Prime Account to your Receipt Bank and have the 'invoices' fetched and ready to sync with your bookkeeping software!
Did you know about Amazon Business Prime? I think it's the cat's pyjamas! :)
#BeThatBusiness that has it's #HackStack set up to save time and money!
Bookkeepers and Accountants are two different roles, and are both important to have on a businesses team.
Bookkeepers look back at what happened. Accountants look forward and help plan based on what happened.
Record Keepers input data. If the Record Keeper (sometimes the office manager) also happens to know and understand bookkeeping, then they do bookkeeping roles also. But not always. Record keepers are generally 'live', that is, real time. They help with the AR and AP. In bigger companies they are dedicated clerks for just AP and AR. Record keepers can be clerks, office managers, admin help, etc.
A bookkeeper makes sure all entries are entered correctly. They may or may not be tasked with doing all of the data entry. Often they are. But their main value is that they make sure it's entered correctly, and that all accounts are reconciled against the bank statement, the credit card statement, the loan statement, etc to make sure nothing was missed, and correct any typos or double entries. Bookkeepers are generally 'after the fact', not 'real time' like record keepers. Business owners often have already paid the bills and invoiced their clients, and bookkeepers are making sure those transactions have been recorded, and if not, they put them in. Bookkeepers are the 'control' on the final totals, they verify they are all in properly. Bookkeepers understand double sided accounting, assets vs costs, interest vs principal. Loan payments are entered correctly. Bookkeepers can tell you how much to pay for sales tax, how much to remit for payroll taxes. The bookkeeping software takes these totals, and presents them as draft financial reports: the Income Statement (or Profit and Loss), and the Balance Sheet. If your bookkeeper cannot properly reconcile, enter loan amortization, or confirm the accounts to real life, then they are not bookkeepers, they are record keepers. Record keepers also are valuable if you're looking to economize! You're Financial team can have three players! Just don't expect them to understand how to put in an asset purchase correctly.
Next the accountant reviews the totals. They help analyze and interpret these totals. They may need to make adjustments, such as depreciation, and dividends issued. They may suggest strategies such as management bonuses, and input those entries also. They use these totals to assist with business planning including tax planning, business growth and business structure. You must not wait until the year is done to have your accountant review these totals. You should go mid year, and also in the third quarter, to help with future looking tax planning and advice. It's hard to fix what has happened. It's better to have a plan. The taxes you'll save by planning and being intentional are huge. Accountants also prepare the final financials that go with the business's tax return. These financials are more streamlined, and are the final prepared reports that governments and banks want to see.
People often use their accountant as bookkeepers. This is foolish and a waste of money. This is not where their value lays. If a business tries to input their own records and expects the accountant to reconcile the bank and fix their errors instead of using a bookkeeper to do so, they will waste their money and not use the accountant for what their value really is. When a business owner uses an accountant to 'fix' their work, they are forcing their accountant to focus on compliance only, and getting something reasonable filed with the government. And the message you send to your accountant is "I am just using you for compliance". No one is going to care more about your bookkeeping and tax planning than you do. If you use your accountant for compliance, that's all you'll get.
Bookkeepers look back, and make sure the totals are reconciled, verified, and correct. Accountants look forward, and though they prepare your tax returns, their value lies in PLANNING your tax returns before the year is done, and what to do next year. But they can only advise you on what the totals are saying. If you have bad totals, then the advice will match.
One person can wear many hats, but it's important to know, they are three different hats.
Some accountants focus more on compliance than on planning. When interviewing for an accountant, be sure to ask them if the offer advisory services, and will meet you mid year to go over the mid year totals and future planning.
#BeThatBusiness that has their financial team set up for Success!